Defense at Scale
> Last year, my colleague Chris Rohlf gave a keynote at BSidesNOLA entitled “Offense at Scale”. Offense sounds fun. Pwn all the things. And you’re always going to win! And normally I’m a big fan of being massively offensive. Unfortunately, I find myself on the defense when it comes to information security.
> Here’s how you defend at scale. Can’t be done. The end. Everything’s fucked. You’re pwned.
Plenty of good points here. Also a fun read.
Confession of Kim Philby made public for first time
It’s Scarily Easy To Track Someone Around A City Via Their Instagram Stories
> By cross-referencing just one hour of footage from public webcams with stories taken in Times Square, BuzzFeed News confirmed the full identities of a half dozen people.
How the woman who broke the news about World War II was also first to the ‘Third Man’ spy
> Much of the coverage following the death of Clare Hollingworth has focussed upon her reporting on the outbreak of World War II and the fact that she broke the first stories about Germany’s invasion of Poland. But a little more can perhaps be said about her role in another major 20th-century news story. Hollingworth played a significant part in the outing of Kim Philby as the so-called “Third Man” in the Cambridge Spy Ring, following his disappearance from Beirut in January 1963.
The Enigma Machine
> The Enigma Machine was one of the centerpoints of World War II, and its cryptanalysis was one of the stepping stones from breaking codes as an art to cryptography as a science. The machine encrypted messages sent between parts of the German army – operators would type a key on its keyboard, the machine would scramble that, and a letter would light up on the top.
> This notebook simulates an Enigma Machine and visualizes how it works. The Enigma Machine is an especially neat thing to visualize because it was electromechanical. As you used it, it moved. Instead of circuit traces, it had beautiful real wires connecting its pieces.
The NSA's regional Cryptologic Centers
> For many years, the US National Security Agency (NSA) was identified with its almost iconic dark-glass cube-shaped headquarters building at Fort Meade in Maryland. Only when Edward Snowden stepped forward in 2013, the public learned that there’s also a large NSA facility in Hawaii - which is actually one of four regional centers spread across the United States.
Rashomon of disclosure
> In a world of changing technology, there are few constants - but if there is one constant in security, it is the rhythmic flare-up of discussions about disclosure on the social-media-du-jour (mailing lists in the past, now mostly Twitter and Facebook).
> In this blog post, I would like to highlight a few aspects of the discussion that are important to me personally - aspects which influenced my thinking, and which are underappreciated in my view.
The Matasano Crypto Challenges (review)
If you don’t have time for the challenges themselves, reading this review a few times until the lessons are internalized may be a good substitute.
> How practical these attacks were. A lot of stuff that I knew was weak in principle (like re-using a nonce or using a timestamp as a ‘random’ seed) turns out to be crackable within seconds by an art major writing crappy Python.
HTTP Desync Attacks: Request Smuggling Reborn
> HTTP requests are traditionally viewed as isolated, standalone entities. In this paper, I’ll explore forgotten techniques for remote, unauthenticated attackers to smash through this isolation and splice their requests into others, through which I was able to play puppeteer with the web infrastructure of numerous commercial and military systems, rain exploits on their visitors, and harvest over $70k in bug bounties.
> The protocol is extremely simple - HTTP requests are simply placed back to back, and the server parses headers to work out where each one ends and the next one starts. This is often confused with HTTP pipelining, which is a rarer subtype that’s not required for the attacks described in this paper. By itself, this is harmless. However, modern websites are composed of chains of systems, all talking over HTTP. This multi-tiered architecture takes HTTP requests from multiple different users and routes them over a single TCP/TLS connection:
Adopting the Arm Memory Tagging Extension in Android
> As part of our continuous commitment to improve the security of the Android ecosystem, we are partnering with Arm to design the memory tagging extension (MTE). Memory safety bugs, common in C and C++, remain one of the largest vulnerabilities in the Android platform and although there have been previous hardening efforts, memory safety bugs comprised more than half of the high priority security bugs in Android 9.
> We believe that memory tagging will detect the most common classes of memory safety bugs in the wild, helping vendors identify and fix them, discouraging malicious actors from exploiting them. During the past year, our team has been working to ensure readiness of the Android platform and application software for MTE. We have deployed HWASAN, a software implementation of the memory tagging concept, to test our entire platform and a few select apps. This deployment has uncovered close to 100 memory safety bugs. The majority of these bugs were detected on HWASAN enabled phones in everyday use. MTE will greatly improve upon this in terms of overhead, ease of deployment, and scale. In parallel, we have been working on supporting MTE in the LLVM compiler toolchain and in the Linux kernel. The Android platform support for MTE will be complete by the time of silicon availability.
Map Guard and Intel MPK
> Earlier this year I pushed a small library to Github called Map Guard. The goal of Map Guard is to enforce non-invasive security policies with regards to how pages of memory may be allocated, or modified, with the mmap syscall. For example, we may want to deny any page allocations marked Read, Write, and Execute as it introduces an easy mechanism for an exploit developer to take advantage of. In the rest of this post I will break down the approach I took to implement each of these security policies, and finally how Map Guard uses Intel’s Memory Protection Keys to allow transparently enabling Execute Only memory for all regions of mapped code.
On colonialism, imperialism, and ignoring medieval history
> We have a lot of fun, don’t we, when we talk about how people argue that the medieval period was the Dark Ages based on the fact that the feel some type of way about it? Now, can I call people who think this ridiculously incredulous and basic? Yes. And I do. Thanks for asking. Having said that, the general ignorance of the medieval period is not from nothing.
I feel like every mention of the dark ages comes with the disclaimer that they weren’t that dark so I’m not sure how widespread the misperception still is. But there’s also some neat historical facts here.
> This ended up completely changing fashion in England. Anne is the girl who introduced those sweet horned headdresses you think of when you think of medieval ladies, riding side-saddle, and the word “coach” to England, (from the Hungairan Kocs, where the cart she arrived at court the first time came from). Sweetening her transition to English life was the fact that she didn’t have to pay a dowry to get married. Instead, the English were allowed to trade freely with Bohemia and the Holy Roman Empire and allowed to be around a Czech lady. That was reward enough as far as the Empire was concerned. That’s how much England was not a thing.
Getting Into Browser Exploitation
Last post in series, toc at the top.
> 0x00: New Series: Getting Into Browser Exploitation
> 0x02: The Butterfly of JSObject
> 0x04: WebKit RegExp Exploit addrof() walk-through
> 0x05: The fakeobj() Primitive: Turning an Address Leak into a Memory Corruption
> 0x07: Preparing for Stage 2 of a WebKit exploit
> 0x08: Arbitrary Read and Write in WebKit Exploit
7 Days To Virtualization: A Series On Hypervisor Development
Interview with Bill Joy
> The following interview is taken from the August 1984 issue of Unix Review magazine.
A lot of text editor history here, featuring of course, vi.
> I think it killed the performance on a lot of the systems in the Labs for years because everyone had their own copy of it, but it wasn’t being shared, and so they wasted huge amounts of memory back when memory was expensive. With 92 people in the Labs maintaining vi independently, I think they ultimately wasted incredible amounts of money. I was surprised about vi going in, though, I didn’t know it was in System V. I learned about it being in System V quite a while after it had come out.
Plus some commentary on other topics.
> The point is that you want to have a system that is responsive. You don’t want a car that talks to you. I’ll never buy a car that says, “Good morning.” The neat thing about UNIX is that it is very responsive. You just say, “A pipe to B” - it doesn’t blather at you that “execution begins,” or “execution terminated, IEFBR14.”
> The trouble is that UNIX is not accessible, not transparent in the way that Interleaf is, where you sit down and start poking around in the menu and explore the whole system. Someone I know sat down with a Macintosh and a Lisa and was disappointed because, in a half hour, he explored the whole system and there wasn’t as much as he thought. That’s true, but the point is in half an hour, almost without a manual you can know which button to push and you can find nearly everything. Things don’t get lost. I think that’s the key.
Trump Consultant Is Trolling Democrats With Biden Site That Isn’t Biden’s
> For much of the last three months, the most popular Joseph R. Biden Jr. website has been a slick little piece of disinformation that is designed to look like the former vice president’s official campaign page, yet is most definitely not pro-Biden.
> The website’s success was not accidental. Mr. Mauldin put it up well before Mr. Biden’s official website and aggressively pushed it out on Reddit, getting clicks and links and exposure. It had a big boost in May when a handful of media outlets — The Daily Caller and CNET, among others — wrote stories about the fake page beating Mr. Biden’s and linked to it. Links from established media websites are weighted heavily by search engines.
Hey everybody, look at this thing we don’t want people to see!
Adventures in reverse engineering Broadcom NIC firmware
> The reverse engineering project, Project Ortega, began in December 2017 and involved reverse engineering proprietary firmware to determine what any open source replacement would need to do. Mainly this involved producing a reverse engineered C codebase from the disassembly of proprietary firmware, then producing a natural-language specification for others to reimplement; the actual reversed code itself is not published. In other words, this is a clean-room reverse engineering workflow.
Defending against transient execution attacks
> It is important to build up a systematic understanding of these attacks and possible defenses
Patrolling The Cyber-Physical Security Border
> Are there any overlaps between the physical and cyber security fields? Are there certain corners of cyber security that can best be reached by physical security experts, and vice versa? Can the two fields benefit from more cross-pollination and professional cooperation?
Plus some more comments: https://medium.com/@thegrugq/security-turns-out-its-hard-e678c5350bc7
Running iOS in QEMU to an interactive bash shell (1): tutorial
> While wanting to do some iOS security research and inspired by the work done by zhuowei, I decided to try and get this emulation project further along the boot process. The goal was to get the system to boot without having to patch the kernel beforehand or during the boot process, have new modules that extend QEMU’s capabilities to execute arm64 XNU systems and, get an interactive bash shell. This post is the first post in a 2-post series, in which I will present instructions for executing iOS on QEMU and launching an interactive bash shell. In the second post, I will detail some of the research that was required in order to get there. For this project, the iOS version and device that were chosen are iOS 12.1 and iPhone 6s Plus, because this specific iOS 12 image comes with a lot of symbols exported in the kernel image compared to other iOS kernel images that are usually stripped of most symbols.