A Deep Dive on RSA Accumulators
Accumulators are a topic of interest in academia since 1994. Similarly to a Merkle Tree, they are used to cryptographically commit to the knowledge of a set of data. At a later point in time, proving membership of a subset of the dataset in the dataset can be proven by publishing a proof. In Merkle Trees the proof is called a Merkle Branch (or Merkle Proof), and grows logarithmically to the size of the committed data (commit 16 elements, prove inclusion by revealing log_2(16)=4).
Accumulators on the other hand, allow proving membership in constant size, as well as batching of proofs for multiple elements (which is not a feature of Merkle trees).
The focus of this post will be on describing the building blocks of RSA Accumulators, how we can construct proofs of (non-)membership as well as batch them across multiple blocks. This particular technique also has applications in UTXO-Based Plasma, and has given birth to the Plasma Prime variant. A lot of effort is being put into designing an accumulator that allows compaction of the UTXO-set in Plasma.