What's new in CPUs since the 80s?
Everything below refers to x86 and linux, unless otherwise indicated. History has a tendency to repeat itself, and a lot of things that were new to x86 were old hat to supercomputing, mainframe, and workstation folks.
x86 chips have picked up a lot of new features and whiz-bang gadgets.
Overall, a pretty good introduction to modern CPUs, performance, and concurrency.