Okay, so you’re a CS graduate and you did a hardware course as part of your degree, but perhaps that was a few years ago now and you haven’t really kept up with the details of processor designs since then. In particular, you might not be aware of some key topics that developed rapidly in recent times...
pipelining (superscalar, OOO, VLIW, branch prediction, predication)
multi-core and simultaneous multi-threading (SMT, hyper-threading)
SIMD vector instructions (MMX/SSE/AVX, AltiVec, NEON)
caches and the memory hierarchy
Fear not! This article will get you up to speed fast. In no time, you’ll be discussing the finer points of in-order vs out-of-order, hyper-threading, multi-core and cache organization like a pro. But be prepared – this article is brief and to-the-point.
I would say all of that is accurate except the brief part. It’s quite long, but very dense. Excellent resource.